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Title: Determinants and inequalities in access to improved water sources and sanitation among the Zambian households
Authors: Mulenga, James N.
Bwalya, Bupe B.
Chishimba, Kunda Kaliba
Keywords: Access; Inequalities; Improved Water; Improved Sanitation; Erreygers Concentration Index; Household; ZDHS; Zambia
Issue Date: Nov-2017
Series/Report no.: International Journal of Development and Sustainability;Volume 6 Number 8 (2017): Pages 746-762
Abstract: Improved water sources and sanitation are crucial for human survival. The study focused on examining the inequalities and determinants of access to water and sanitation between rural and urban households. This study analysed the household data sets from the 2013-14 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys (ZDHS) with a total sample size of 15,920 households. To determine the percentage distribution, inequalities and determinants of access to improved water and sanitation, the study used univariate analysis, the Erreygers concentration index (E) and the logistic regression, respectively. Sixty five percent (64.5%) of the households had access to improved water source compared to 35.5% who did not while only a quarter (25.4%) of the households had access to improved sanitation compared about three quarters (74.6%) without access. The results also show that access to improved water and sanitation is concentrated among the wealthier households and increases with increasing wealth quintile in both rural and urban areas. Further, study showed that wealth index, gender of household head, region and type of place of residence were all positively associated with access to improved sanitation. Wealth index and sex of household head were found to be positively related with access to improved water. To enhance access to improved water and sanitation among the poor households it is imperative that government and other stakeholders intervene by providing the amenities or by subsidising the provision
ISSN: 2186-8662
Appears in Collections:Agriculture general

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